Most anthropological linguistic research has been focused on unwritten, non-European languages.Linguists usually begin their study of such a language by learning first hand from native speakers what its rules are for making sounds and meaning from those sounds, including the rules for sentence construction.All of the completely isolated societies of the past have long since been drawn into the global economy and heavily influenced by the dominant cultures of the large nations.
Most cultural anthropologists study contemporary societies rather than ancient ones.
Through the 19th and most of the 20th centuries, the peoples who primarily interested cultural anthropologists were those who lived in small-scale, isolated societies with cultures that were very different from those of Europeans and European Americans.
Near-human is a category that includes monkeys, apes, and the other primates as well as our fossil ancestors.
The primary interest of most biological anthropologists today is human evolution--they want to learn how our ancestors changed through time to become what we are today.
Biological (or physical) anthropologists carry out systematic studies of the non-cultural aspects of humans and near-humans.